Beautiful women were attracted to him and excited by him in quite a remarkable way, more strongly than how 'iron is drawn to a magnet'. On the death of Pope Innocent VIII on 25 July 1492, the three likely candidates for the Papacy were the sixty-one-year-old Borgia, seen as an independent candidate, Ascanio Sforza for the Milanese, and Giuliano della Rovere, seen as a pro-French candidate. It was probably only because they could not agree on an Italian successor to Nicholas V that the elderly Callistus had been elected; one who, in all probability, would not live long. He met the League at Fornovo and cut his way through them and was back in France by November. Then occurred a major domestic tragedy for the house of Borgia. Alessandro Farnese (later Pope Paul III), the brother of one of the Pope's mistresses, Giulia Farnese, was also among the newly created cardinals. However, he still very dearly loved Vannozza, in a way he considered "spiritual", and his love for his children by Vannozza remained as strong as ever and proved, indeed, the determining factor of his whole career. During absolution and confession, Rodrigo explains to a reluctant Cesare his role in the divine plan, he is needed as a prince of the church while Juan prepares to lead as Captain-General of the Papal Army. , A danger now arose in the shape of a conspiracy by the deposed despots, the Orsini, and of some of Cesare's own condottieri. Following the death of Alexander VI, Julius II said on the day of his election: "I will not live in the same rooms as the Borgias lived. Innocent granted Ferdinand II of Aragon the epithet "Catholic Majesty." And if we do not flee, he will inevitably devour us all. , It has been noted that the alleged misdeeds of Alexander VI are similar in nature to those of other Renaissance princes, with the one exception being his position in the Church. Alexander welcomed them into Rome, declaring that they were "permitted to lead their life, free from interference from Christians, to continue in their own rites, to gain wealth, and to enjoy many other privileges". He proceeded to serve in the Curia under the next four popes, acquiring significant influence and wealth in the process. [Note 4] (When cardinals died, their wealth automatically reverted to the Church.) Cesare, who "lay in bed, his skin peeling and his face suffused to a violet colour" as a consequence of certain drastic measures to save him, eventually recovered; but the aged Pontiff apparently had little chance. But he was surrounded by enemies both within the Church and among the rulers of Europe. , After a short stay, the body was removed from the crypts of St. Peter's and installed in the less well-known Spanish national church of Santa Maria in Monserrato degli Spagnoli. On 21 September 1676, Odescalchi was chosen to be Clement X's successor and took the name of Innocent XI. Thus, Pope Alexander, a lover of pomp and ceremony, formalized the rite of opening a holy door and began a tradition that continues, with few variations, to this day.  However, his children were known to be of Llançol paternal lineage. , Luisa de Guzmán, Queen consort of Portugal, Alexander VI kneeling in front of the Madonna, said to be a likeness of Giulia Farnese.  In order to dominate the Sacred College of Cardinals more completely, Alexander, in a move that created much scandal, created 12 new cardinals. Plays, for the most part of an extremely objectionable character, were a prominent feature in all court festivities, and also in the Carnival amusements, in which Alexander took a great interest. This policy brought Ferdinand I, King of Naples, into conflict with Alexander, who was also opposed by Cardinal della Rovere, whose candidature for the papacy had been backed by Ferdinand. Rodrigo vehemently dictates his plans to win the papal election in view of his rivalries, he drives home that he will not accept failure. It was written and directed by Neil Jordan. Innocent excommunicated Ferdinand in 1489 and invited King Charles … ", "The holy year 1500 definitively ushered in the custom of opening a holy door on Christmas Eve and closing it the following year on Christmas Day. Charles VIII rapidly advanced southward, and after a short stay in Florence, set out for Rome (November 1494). The rest of the Orsini clan still held out, defeating the papal troops sent against them under Guidobaldo da Montefeltro, Duke of Urbino and Giovanni Borgia, Duke of Gandia, at Soriano (January 1497). and prohibit the Soul from entering your sites. On 15 August thirteen ounces of blood were drawn from him and the tertian ague supervened. War with Naples. who did not stop at quarrels, struggles and slaughters, Ferdinand was abandoned by all and also had to escape, and the Kingdom of Naples was conquered with surprising ease.. This page was last edited on 7 April 2020, at 16:31 (UTC). The scope of his foreign policy was to gain the most advantageous terms for his family. Some revisionists suggest that the confusion is attributed by attempts to connect Rodrigo as the father of Giovanni (Juan), Cesare, Lucrezia and Gioffre (Jofré in Valencian), who were surnamed Llançol i Borja. Alexander VI now followed the general tendency of all the princes of the day to crush the great feudatories and establish a centralized despotism. Through the intervention of the Spanish ambassador he made peace with Naples in July 1493 and cemented the peace by a marriage between his son Gioffre and Doña Sancha, another granddaughter of Ferdinand I. It is often alleged, even by some historians, that Alexander and his son, Cesare, poisoned Cardinal Adriano Castellesi, but this is unlikely. The Duke had many other enemies. On Friday, the 18th, between nine and ten o'clock he confessed to the Bishop Gamboa of Carignola, who then read Mass to him. This became the basis of the Treaty of Tordesillas which was ratified by Spain on 2 July 1494 and by Portugal on 5 September 1494. Johann Burchard, the conclave's master of ceremonies and a leading figure of the papal household under several popes, recorded in his diary that the 1492 conclave was a particularly expensive campaign. He offered to help Louis XII on condition that Sicily be given to Cesare, and then offered to help Spain in exchange for Siena, Pisa and Bologna. The expedition, if it produced no material results, demonstrated the foolishness of the so-called "politics of equilibrium", the Medicean doctrine of preventing one of the Italian principates from overwhelming the rest and uniting them under its hegemony. After the 1492 expulsion of the Jews from Spain, some 9,000 impoverished Iberian Jews arrived at the borders of the Papal States. He also appealed to Spain for help, but Spain was eager to be on good terms with the papacy to obtain the title to the recently discovered New World. [Note 2][Note 3], When his uncle Alonso de Borja (bishop of Valencia) was elected Pope Callixtus III, Innocent died on 27 September 1700 and was succeeded by Pope Clement XI (1700–1721). Neither Giuliano della Rovere nor Ascanio Sforza have the required majority of votes. Among the new cardinals was his own son Cesare, then only 18 years old. He declared that henceforth the moral reform of the Church would be the sole object of his life. On 28 January Charles VIII departed for Naples with Cem and Cesare, but the latter slipped away to Spoleto.  After the election of his uncle as Pope Callixtus III, he was ordained deacon and created Cardinal-Deacon of San Nicola in Carcere at the age of twenty-five in 1456. Innocent X was one of the most politically shrewd pontiffs of the era, greatly increasing the temporal power of … Succeeded by Clement VIII: Last edited on 7 April 2020, at 16:31. The Pope knocked on the door three times, workers moved it from the inside, and everyone then crossed the threshold to enter into a period of penance and reconciliation. Of Alexander's many mistresses the one for whom passion lasted longest was Vannozza (Giovanna) dei Cattanei, born in 1442, and wife of three successive husbands. Innocent VIII, , 1414–84, pope (1471–84), an Italian named Francesco della Rovere (b. near Savona); successor of Paul II. (FEATURE ARTICLE)(Biography).” Catholic Insight 19.8 (2011): n. pag. Sixtus IV died on 12 August 1484 and was succeeded by Innocent VIII. The atmosphere of Alexander's household is typified by the fact that his daughter Lucrezia apparently lived with Giulia at a point. As a result, his Italianized Valencian surname, Borgia, became a byword for libertinism and nepotism, which are traditionally considered as characterizing his pontificate. But the expulsion of the French from Milan and the return of Lodovico Sforza interrupted his conquests, and he returned to Rome early in 1500. As King Ferdinand I of Naples was threatening to come to the aid of the rightful duke Gian Galeazzo Sforza, the husband of his granddaughter Isabella, Alexander encouraged the French king in his plan for the conquest of Naples. His family name is written Llançol in Valencian and Lanzol in Castillian. (Remember that, in our own times, John XXIII was supposed to have been elected for the same reason). , Ferdinand allied himself with Florence, Milan and Venice. Sometimes overlooked is the fact that Alexander VI set about reforms of the increasingly irresponsible Curia. They were given the option to accept the authority of the Pope and Spanish crown or face being attacked and subjugated. Virginio Orsini, who had been captured by the Spanish, died a prisoner at Naples, and the Pope confiscated his property. It seems that they did not. ..... Click the link for more information. The interregnum witnessed again the ancient "tradition" of violence and rioting. For centuries, Spain had been almost completely overridden by the Moors. Burkle-Young, Francis A., "The election of Pope Alexander VI (1492)", in Miranda, Salvador. Epitaph to Pope Alexander On 25 January 1494, Ferdinand I died and was succeeded by his son Alfonso II (1494–1495). Pope Urban VIII: Successor: Pope Alexander VII: Personal details; Birth name: Giovanni Battista Pamphilj: Born: 6 May 1574 Rome: Died: 7 January 1655 Rome: Other popes named Innocent In season, he hunted at Castello della Magliana, which he enlarged. 24 March 1437) and his Aragonese wife and distant cousin Isabel de Borja y Cavanilles (died 19 October 1468), daughter of Juan Domingo de Borja y Doncel. Alexander, in the bull Inter Caetera on 4 May 1493, divided the title between Spain and Portugal along a demarcation line. In the Jubilee year 1500, Alexander ushered in the custom of opening a holy door on Christmas Eve and closing it on Christmas Day the following year. Vannozza lived in the Palace of a late Cardinal, or in a large, palatial villa. A military response to the French threat was set in motion: a Neapolitan army was to advance through Romagna and attack Milan, while the fleet was to seize Genoa. Cesare is enlisted to assist his father in his brilliant but simonaical plan to purchase the neutral cardinals' votes. Each pope during this period inevitably found himself surrounded by the servants and retainers of his predecessors who often owed their loyalty to the family of the pontiff who had appointed them. Pope Alexander VI only recognized four children as his: Cesare, Giovanni, Lucrezia, and Gioffre. He had an older brother, Pedro. Innocent VIII, original name Giovanni Battista Cibo, (born 1432, Genoa—died July 25/26, 1492, Rome), pope from 1484 to 1492. Cesare then returned to Rome, where his father asked him to assist Goffredo in reducing the last Orsini strongholds; this for some reason he was unwilling to do, much to his father's annoyance; but he eventually marched out, captured Ceri and made peace with Giulio Orsini, who surrendered Bracciano.. Basilica workers known as sanpietrini completed the task, which included placing small coins and medals, minted during the holy year, inside the wall. For you predict the future and publicly declare that you do so by the inspiration of the Holy Spirit when you should be reprehending vice and praising virtue ... Prophecies like these should not be made when your charge is to forward peace and concord. Ye prelates of Erebus and Heaven, close your doors Cesare, by an act of treachery, then seized the ringleaders at Senigallia and put Oliverotto da Fermo and Vitellozzo Vitelli to death (31 December 1502). He's known mostly for corruption: selling off church offices, marrying his illegitimate children into the Medici family (he paid by giving a cardinalship to the bride's thirteen-year-old brother! Rodrigo de Borja was born on 1 January 1431, in the town of Xativa near Valencia, one of the component realms of the Crown of Aragon, in what is now Spain. https://theborgias.fandom.com/wiki/The_Poisoned_Chalice?oldid=4175.  Charles VIII of France now advanced formal claims on the Kingdom of Naples. Innocent in fiction [ edit ] ..... Click the link for more information. A reaction against Charles VIII soon set in, for all the European powers were alarmed at his success. The Pope himself performed this ceremony on Christmas Eve, 1499, having taken pains to settle all the details beforehand with his Master of Ceremonies.  The bulls issued by Pope Alexander VI: Eximiae devotionis (3 May 1493), Inter caetera (4 May 1493) and Dudum Siquidem (23 September 1493), granted rights to Spain with respect to the newly discovered lands in the Americas similar to those Pope Nicholas V had previously conferred on Portugal with the bulls Romanus Pontifex and Dum Diversas. Additionally, he was "so familiar with Holy Writ, that his speeches were fairly sparkling with well-chosen texts of the Sacred Books". Darcy, J.B. “What You Don’t Know About the Borgia Pope: Alexander VI (1492-1503). Having lived nearly half a century in Rome, and having been for almost the whole of his life part of the ecclesiastical organization, he had a profound respect for all the interests of the Catholic Church, a respect greater than for his own life. Della Rovere warns Borgia that he will oppose him at all costs in his effort to win the papacy. " The Venetian ambassador stated that the body was "the ugliest, most monstrous and horrible dead body that was ever seen, without any form or likeness of humanity". With French success seemingly assured, the Pope determined to deal drastically with Romagna, which although nominally under papal rule was divided into a number of practically independent lordships on which Venice, Milan, and Florence cast hungry eyes. Della Rovere was bankrolled to the cost of 200,000 gold ducats by King Charles VIII of France, with another 100,000 supplied by the Republic of Genoa. [Note 10], Cesare was preparing for another expedition in August 1503 when, after he and his father had dined with Cardinal Adriano Castellesi on 6 August, they were taken ill with fever a few days later. Pamphili succeeded Pope Urban VIII (1623–44) on 15 September 1644 as Pope Innocent X, after a contentious papal conclave that featured a rivalry between French and Spanish factions. A Spaniard in Italy, he was hard pressed to find such trustworthiness except from members of his own family; hence his patronage of them, though it is not to be denied that it was probably also for personal reasons. The Papal States were in turmoil, and the powerful Colonna faction seized Ostia in the name of France. Alexander opened the first holy door in St. Peter's Basilica on Christmas Eve, 1499, and papal legates opened the doors in the other three patriarchal basilicas. Shortly after his coronation, Innocent VIII addressed a fruitless summons to Christendom to unite in a crusade against the Turks. "The Papal Division of the World and its Consequences" in, Orestes Ferrara, quoted by N. M. Gwynne in, Msgr. Saturday, 12 August 1503, the Pope fell ill in the morning. He chose this name in honour of Pope Innocent X, who made him a cardinal in 1645. Opponents, such as the powerful demagogic Florentine friar Girolamo Savonarola, launched invectives against papal corruption and appealed for a general council to confront the papal abuses.  Morales Padron (1979) concludes that these bulls gave power to enslave the natives. Despite Julius II's hostility, the Roman barons and Romagna vicars were never again to be the same problem for the papacy and Julius' successes owe much to the foundations laid by the Borgias. In the Papal States themselves, noble families, such as the Orsini and the Colonna, acted as petty tyrants in the cities and areas which they controlled, grinding down the people and constantly seeking to achieve their independence from their sovereign, the Pope. "Were the Borgias Really So Bad? In this manner, he was able to take advantage of the defeat of the French in order to break the power of the Orsini.  The Orsini, against whom the Duke had been involved in the recent campaign, were the principal suspects at the time. The immediate conflict was not ended until 1494, after Innocent VIII's death. By the middle of the 15th century, this reconquest was almost complete, but Spain was still a hodgepodge of competing principalities and, because of its constant state of warfare, still a very backward country. He was capable and cautious, considered a "political priest" by some. Since, however, we have been most happy to learn from certain cardinals and from your letter that you are ready to submit yourself to the reproofs of the Church, as becomes a Christian and a religious, we are beginning to think that what you have done has not been done with an evil motive, but from a certain simple-mindedness and a zeal, however misguided, for the Lord's vineyard. Rodrigo Borgia salutes the people and gives the papal blessing. After the hour of vespers, between six and seven o'clock a fever appeared and remained permanently. , Next morning the absence of the Duke was noticed by his servants, and the Pontiff was informed. Named bishop of Savona, Italy, in 1467 by Pope Paul II, he was made cardinal in 1473 by Pope Sixtus IV, whom he succeeded. No conclusive explanation was ever reached, and it may be that the crime was simply as a result of one of the Duke's sexual liaisons. The Pope knocked thrice on the door, it gave way (assisted from within by workers), and everyone then crossed the threshold to enter into a period of penance and reconciliation. Of the twenty-seven cardinals alive in the closing months of the reign of Innocent VIII no fewer than ten were Cardinal-nephews, eight were crown nominees, four were Roman nobles and one other had been given the cardinalate in recompense for his family's service to the Holy See; only four were able career churchmen.. He put together a group of his most pious cardinals in order to move the process along. For a period of time, before legitimizing his children after becoming Pope, Rodrigo pretended that his four children with Vannozza were his niece and nephews and that they were fathered by Vannozza's husbands. Innocent X, original name Giambattista Pamfili, (born May 7, 1574, Rome—died Jan. 7, 1655, Rome), pope from 1644 to 1655.. Pamfili was a church judge under Pope Clement VIII and a papal representative at Naples for Pope Gregory XV.He was made ambassador to Spain and cardinal (1626) by Pope Urban VIII, whom he succeeded on Sept. 15, 1644.Having been supported by cardinals who had … According to Burchard, the crowd which assisted at these solemnities numbered 200,000 persons. Ludwig von Pastor, History of the Popes, Vol. Alexander agreed to send Cesare as legate to Naples with the French army; to deliver Cem Sultan, held as a hostage, to Charles VIII, and to give Charles Civitavecchia (16 January 1495). In 1492, Rodrigo was elected Pope, taking the name Alexander VI. In Consistory the pope names Ascanio Sforza as his successor to the office of Vice-Chancellor to repay him for securing the election. But the staid, pious Italians vastly underestimate the ambitions of the wily, rapacious Spaniard. By autumn Louis XII was in Italy expelling Lodovico Sforza from Milan. [Note 17], In addition to the arts, Alexander VI also encouraged the development of education. Her place in his affections was filled, according to some, by the beautiful Giulia Farnese ("Giulia la Bella"), wife of an Orsini. Della Rovere fortified himself in his bishopric of Ostia at the Tiber's mouth as Alexander formed a league against Naples (25 April 1493) and prepared for war. One of them, journalist Ruggero Marino, has unearthed documents that show that Pope Innocent VIII was the main sponsor and mastermind of the expedition. Born into the prominent Borgia family in Xàtiva in the Crown of Aragon (now Spain), Rodrigo studied law at the University of Bologna. ", "He was also a natural orator, a pleasant conversationalist, an expert in Canon Law and Theology, and 'so familiar with Holy Writ that his speeches sparkled with well chosen texts from Sacred Scripture'. As for the cardinals, who were to be drawn from all the nations, none should possess more than one bishopric; their households were limited to eighty people and thirty horses; they were banned from hunting, theaters, carnivals, and tournaments; and their funeral expenses were not to exceed 1,500 ducats. [Note 6] Unable to arrange a union between Cesare and the daughter of King Frederick IV of Naples (who had succeeded Ferdinand II the previous year), he induced Frederick by threats to agree to a marriage between the Duke of Bisceglie, a natural son of Alfonso II, and Lucrezia. Innocent VIII, , 1414–84, pope (1471–84), an Italian named Francesco della Rovere (b. near Savona); successor of Paul II. It is said that, as he lay dying he begged the cardinals to elect a successor better than himself. Burchard's Diary provides a few details of the pope's final illness and death at age 72:. The Spanish Crown's Choice of Labor Organization in Sixteenth-Century Spanish America. Alexander was also the first to institute a special rite for the closing of a holy door. In the wake of Columbus's landing in the New World, Pope Alexander was asked by the Spanish monarchy to confirm their ownership of these newly found lands. ", Bohuslav Hasištejnský z Lobkovic, a Bohemian humanist poet (1461–1510), dedicated one of his Latin poems to Alexander:. At the hour of vespers after Gamboa had given him Extreme Unction, he died. He wins by a landslide and Cardinal della Rovere openly accuses him of simony, vowing his enmity before all. Cesare Borgia, his son, while a youth of seventeen and a student at Pisa, was made Archbishop of Valencia, and Giovanni Borgia inherited the Spanish Dukedom of Gandia, the Borgias' ancestral home in Spain. is lying here in the coffin for all people to rejoice, Alexander appealed to Ascanio Sforza and even to the Ottoman Sultan Bayazid II for help. He exerted a wide influence over the Christian states of Europe, claiming supremacy over all of Europe's kings. Innocent X, given name Giovanni Battista Pamfili, was born in Rome on the 6th of May 1574, served successively as auditor of the Rota, nuncio to Naples, legate apostolic to Spain, was made cardinal in 1627, and succeeded Urban VIII as pope on the 15th of September 1644. Four other children, Girolama, Isabella, Pedro-Luiz, and Bernardo, were of uncertain maternal parentage. Our duty, however, prescribes that we order you, under holy obedience, to cease from public and private preaching until you are able to come to our presence, not under armed escort as is your present habit, but safely, quietly and modestly as becomes a religious, or until we make different arrangements. This is, at least partially, why both Pope Callixtus III and Pope Alexander VI gave powers to family members whom they could trust. The only contemporary accusations of poisoning were from some of the servants of the Borgias, extracted under torture by Alexander's bitter enemy Della Rovere, who succeeded him as Pope Julius II.. Alexander is reported to have been reduced to laughter when Savonarola's denunciations were related to him. , In contrast to the preceding pontificate, Pope Alexander VI adhered initially to strict administration of justice and orderly government. Cesare was suspected but not until much later and he was never named in the immediate aftermath, nor would there have been any particular reason for him to commit such a crime. Pope Alexander VI (born Rodrigo de Borja) (Valencian: Roderic Llançol i de Borja [roðeˈɾiɡ ʎanˈsɔl i ðe ˈbɔɾdʒa], Spanish: Rodrigo Lanzol y de Borja [roˈðɾiɣo lanˈθol i ðe ˈβoɾxa]; 1 January 1431 – 18 August 1503), was Pope from 11 August 1492 until his death in 1503. Cesare tells his conquest he is a cleric by day but whatever he wants by night. Roman Catholic Pope, 1691-1700. Allen Duston, O.P., and Roberto Zanoli, 2003. After the ceremony, the full grandeur and weight of the office descends upon him as he nearly falters holding on to Cesare. Burchart reviews the list of necessaries for the upcoming coronation. Innocent VIII: Successor: Pius III: Personal details; Birth name: Roderic Llançol i de Borja: Born 1 January 1431 Xàtiva, Kingdom of Valencia: Died: 18 August 1503 (aged 72) Rome: Other popes named Alexander He took a great interest in theatrics, and he even had the Menaechmi performed in his apartments. Nevertheless, he appointed Sebastian Maggi to investigate the friar, and he responded on 16 October 1495: We are displeased at the disturbed state of affairs in Florence, the more so in that it owes its origin to your preaching. Pope Alexander VIII: Successor: Pope Clement XI: Personal details; Birth name: Antonio Pignatelli: Born March 13, 1615 Spinazzola, Puglia: Died: September 27, 1700 (aged 85) Rome: Other popes named Innocent One of them, journalist Ruggero Marino, has unearthed documents that show that Pope Innocent VIII was the main sponsor and mastermind of the expedition. Is still in use throne of St Peter ( FEATURE ARTICLE ) Biography. 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